Aharonov-Bohm Effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect is a quantum-mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is influenced by the vector potential in regions in which the magnetic field is zero. A beam of monoenergetic electrons passes through a double slit on opposite sides of a solenoid. The expected interference pattern of the waves going through the two slits is shifted by an additional phase difference when the solenoid encloses a magnetic field, despite the magnetic field being zero in the regions through which the electrons pass. This can be observed experimentally by the horizontal displacement of the interference fringes.
The effect can also be observed in small disordered metallic conductors as conductance fluctuations in small (nonsuperconducting) rings and wires.
In this Demonstration, you can observe the electron diffraction pattern on a fluorescent screen as the electron momentum and solenoid magnetic field are varied.


  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]


Reference: Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Physical Review Series II, 115, 1959 pp. 485–491.
    • Share:

Embed Interactive Demonstration New!

Just copy and paste this snippet of JavaScript code into your website or blog to put the live Demonstration on your site. More details »

Files require Wolfram CDF Player or Mathematica.

Mathematica »
The #1 tool for creating Demonstrations
and anything technical.
Wolfram|Alpha »
Explore anything with the first
computational knowledge engine.
MathWorld »
The web's most extensive
mathematics resource.
Course Assistant Apps »
An app for every course—
right in the palm of your hand.
Wolfram Blog »
Read our views on math,
science, and technology.
Computable Document Format »
The format that makes Demonstrations
(and any information) easy to share and
interact with.
STEM Initiative »
Programs & resources for
educators, schools & students.
Computerbasedmath.org »
Join the initiative for modernizing
math education.
Step-by-Step Solutions »
Walk through homework problems one step at a time, with hints to help along the way.
Wolfram Problem Generator »
Unlimited random practice problems and answers with built-in step-by-step solutions. Practice online or make a printable study sheet.
Wolfram Language »
Knowledge-based programming for everyone.
Powered by Wolfram Mathematica © 2017 Wolfram Demonstrations Project & Contributors  |  Terms of Use  |  Privacy Policy  |  RSS Give us your feedback
Note: To run this Demonstration you need Mathematica 7+ or the free Mathematica Player 7EX
Download or upgrade to Mathematica Player 7EX
I already have Mathematica Player or Mathematica 7+