where

is the concentration of

at steady state (

),

is the volumetric flow rate until cooling fails (

),

is the inlet concentration of

(

),

is reactor volume (

),

is the steady-state reaction rate (

),

and

are the steady-state rate constant and pre-exponential factor (1/min),

is activation energy (J/mol),

is the ideal gas constant (J/[mol K]),

is the steady-state temperature (K),

is the molar heat capacity of component

(J/[mol K]),

and

are the inlet and coolant temperatures (K),

is the heat transfer coefficient times heat transfer area (J/[K min]), and

is the heat of reaction (J/mol).

The volumetric flow rate

until the valve is adjusted, and then

is set with a slider to avoid thermal runaway.