Design of a Helical Extension Spring

According to Hooke's law, , the restoring force of an extension spring is proportional to its linear extension .
The value is the spring constant and depends on the design parameters as follows: [1]. Here is the diameter of the coil, is the diameter of the wire, is the number of active windings, and is the shear modulus of the material.

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Reference
[1] K. Gopinath and M. M. Mayuram. "Helical Extension Springs." Course notes for Machine Design II at the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning, India. (May 14, 2012) nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Machine_Design_II/pdf/4_ 4.pdf.
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