Snapshot 1: The only vertices that do not occur in the final linear combination are

(since the tendency is zero at these vertices). Let us detail the calculations that led to the theorem's statement:

Here the first step is due to the additivity of the slanted integral, the second step is due to the definition of the slanted integral and the curve's tendencies at the specific points, and the last step is due to the discrete Green's theorem.

Snapshot 2: In case the edges are perpendicular to the axes, then the theorem agrees with the discrete Green's theorem. Note that here the edges

and

were not selected, thus the color of the vertices

and

is light red (to denote that their matching coefficient in the final linear combination is

, and not

{-, {1}}; and

is colored blue to denote that no calculation at all is done at this vertex.

Snapshot 3: Note that here the vertices

and

meet. Thus, these vertices' coefficient is

(

and

cancel). A more delicate deduction occurs in the upper-left corner of the domain. To simplify the discussion, let us denote the intersection point of the edges

and

by

. The double integral over the whole rectangle

L^{′}C_{1}OC_{2} should be deducted: part of it does not intersect the given domain, and the double integral over the other part is calculated twice (once for each of the edges

L^{′}L and

ML^{′}—the dark yellow part in the graph). Indeed, we note that the integral

is automatically deducted, since (according to the discrete Green's theorem):

, and thus the deduction is bidirectional: the integral over the rectangle is deducted, the unwanted vertices

C_{2},L^{′},C_{1} are deducted, and in return we get

with a

coefficient, as we would expect in the discrete Green's theorem for the polygon

.

Snapshot 4: This snapshot depicts the following property of the slanted line integral: if

is closed, then

where

is the curve

taken with reversed orientation. It is easy to see from this snapshot that:

,

where

stands for the boundary of

, and

is the outer polygon,

.

A rigorous formulation of the theorem is as follows. Let

be a simply connected domain in

, whose boundary is a tendable curve (its tendency is defined everywhere). Let

be an integrable function and let

,

, be a cumulative distribution function of

f. Then

, where

is the slanted line integral of

over the boundary of the domain

D, regardless of the choice of points used to calculate the slanted line integral. This theorem can be improved by selecting the points on the curve such that the computational efficiency is maximized, rather than by selecting the points arbitrarily.

The theory of semidiscrete calculus is given in [1].

[1] A. Finkelstein. "The Theory behind the 'Summed Area Tables' Algorithm: A Simple Approach to Calculus," (May 25, 2010).

http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.1418.