# Fermi-Dirac Distributions for Free Electrons in Metals

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This Demonstration shows the variation in density of free electrons as a function of energy (in eV) for some representative metals at different temperatures . According to the Fermi–Dirac distribution, the number of free electrons per electron volt per cubic meter is given by , where is the Fermi energy of the metal and is the Boltzmann constant.

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Contributed by: Kallol Das (St. Aloysius College, Jabalpur, India) (March 2011)

Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

## Snapshots

## Details

Fermi energy of elements and inadequacies inherent in the free electron model are taken from N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, *Solid State Physics*, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976.

Details on the density of free electrons per electron volt are taken from C. Kittel, *Introduction to Solid State Physics*, 5th ed., New York: Wiley, 1983.

Additional information on the free electron model can be found on Wikipedia.

## Permanent Citation