# Helium Ionization Fraction as Function of Density and Temperature

Requires a Wolfram Notebook System

Interact on desktop, mobile and cloud with the free Wolfram CDF Player or other Wolfram Language products.

Requires a Wolfram Notebook System

Edit on desktop, mobile and cloud with any Wolfram Language product.

The ionization fraction of helium is determined by the temperature and density of the plasma. At a particular density and temperature , some fraction of helium will be neutral , some fraction will be singly ionized , and some fraction will be doubly ionized . At the same time, the number of electrons per helium nucleus is determined by charge neutrality. You can set with in cgs units ( to see the ionization fraction as temperature varies from 40,000 K to 200,000 K.

Contributed by: Leo C. Stein (March 2011)

Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA