A magic square has the same sums for the numbers in the rows, columns, and main diagonals. In a pandiagonal magic square, the square can be rotated as if the edges were wrapped around (like a rubber square sheet can be made into a torus), and the main diagonals will still add up to the same magic sum (65 here). All of the 5×5 pandiagonal magic squares can be generated by adding together two sets of permutations.