The x^x Spindle

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It is easy to sketch the graph of for . For , is only defined for rational with odd denominator, unless complex values are allowed. In this case, set , where log represents the principal branch of the complex logarithm; other branches differ by an integer multiple of and these may be specified using the parameter in the formula. Thus, any value determines a 3D graph where each value determines the point in space . The collection of all of these graphs, or threads, forms the spindle.

Contributed by: Mark McClure (March 2011)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA


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Reference: M. D. Meyerson, "The Spindle," Mathematics Magazine, 69(3), 1996 pp. 198–206.



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