Transient Behavior of an Adiabatic CSTR

Consider an irreversible first-order reaction, , taking place in an adiabatic CSTR (continuous stirred-tank reactor). The relevant equations derived from the mass and energy balances are the following:
where and are the reactor's temperature and conversion fraction, is the reactor's residence time, is the rate constant, , , where is the heat of reaction, is the fluid density, and is the fluid heat capacity. It is assumed that and .
The reactor's feed has a concentration, , and a temperature, , chosen equal to 2 moles/liter and 300 Kelvin. The reactor's initial temperature is set by the user. The reactor is initially filled with either pure solvent (i.e., ) or with pure feed (i.e., ). Three steady states are found if one solves the nonlinear system of equations, which is obtained by setting the left-hand side of the governing equations equal to zero. These steady states are the following:
SS1: high conversion with and
SS2: intermediate conversion with and
SS3: low conversion with and
A stability analysis reveals that only the first and last steady states are stable (i.e., SS1 and SS3). Indeed, the Jacobian matrix is the following:
Eigenvalues for the three steady states can be computed and are equal to:
1/ for SS1: and (both are negative)
2/ for SS2: and (eigenvalues have opposite signs)
3/ for SS3: and (both are negative)
This Demonstration plots the transient behavior of the reactor's concentration and temperature. It is clear from the snapshots that only SS1 and SS3 can be reached depending on the initial condition. One snapshot shows that for certain initial conditions the trajectory approaches SS2, then goes to SS1. Indeed, SS2 is a saddle point. One can conclude that adiabatic CSTR reactors show very interesting behavior such as steady state multiplicity.


  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]


L. D. Schmidt, The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    • Share:

Embed Interactive Demonstration New!

Just copy and paste this snippet of JavaScript code into your website or blog to put the live Demonstration on your site. More details »

Files require Wolfram CDF Player or Mathematica.

Mathematica »
The #1 tool for creating Demonstrations
and anything technical.
Wolfram|Alpha »
Explore anything with the first
computational knowledge engine.
MathWorld »
The web's most extensive
mathematics resource.
Course Assistant Apps »
An app for every course—
right in the palm of your hand.
Wolfram Blog »
Read our views on math,
science, and technology.
Computable Document Format »
The format that makes Demonstrations
(and any information) easy to share and
interact with.
STEM Initiative »
Programs & resources for
educators, schools & students.
Computerbasedmath.org »
Join the initiative for modernizing
math education.
Step-by-Step Solutions »
Walk through homework problems one step at a time, with hints to help along the way.
Wolfram Problem Generator »
Unlimited random practice problems and answers with built-in step-by-step solutions. Practice online or make a printable study sheet.
Wolfram Language »
Knowledge-based programming for everyone.
Powered by Wolfram Mathematica © 2018 Wolfram Demonstrations Project & Contributors  |  Terms of Use  |  Privacy Policy  |  RSS Give us your feedback
Note: To run this Demonstration you need Mathematica 7+ or the free Mathematica Player 7EX
Download or upgrade to Mathematica Player 7EX
I already have Mathematica Player or Mathematica 7+