Arm-Z is a conceptual manipulator composed of congruent modules, each having one degree of freedom (1-DOF)—a relative twist. It can be modeled naturally with the Wolfram Language function AnglePath3D. This extremely modular system can perform worm-like organic movements.
This work was completed as part of the project titled: "Arm-Z: an extremely modular hyper-redundant low-cost manipulator—development of control methods and efficiency analysis." It was funded by "OPUS 33" research grant number 2019/33/B/ST8/02791 supported by the National Science Centre, Poland.
 M. Zawidzki and J. Szklarski, "Transformations of Arm-Z Modular Manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization," Advances in Engineering Software, 126, 2018 pp. 147–160. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003.