Arm-Z Modular Manipulator

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Arm-Z is a conceptual manipulator composed of congruent modules each having one degree of freedom (1-DOF) – a relative twist. Simple changes of these twists result in emerging behavior of the entire Arm-Z allowing it to perform complex movements.


Use the slider to get the tip of Arm-Z through the hole without touching the box. Green and red indicate the twists in the next time-step to: the right and left, respectively.


Contributed by: Machi Zawidzki (April 2019)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA




[1] M. Zawidzki and J. Szklarski, "Transformations of Arm-Z Modular Manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization," Advances in Engineering Software, 126, 2018 pp. 147–160. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003.

[2] M. Zawidzki, "Deployable Pipe-Z", Acta Astronautica, 127, 2016 pp. 20–30.

This work was completed as part of the project titled: "Innovative Extremely Modular Systems for temporary and permanent deployable structures and habitats: development, modeling, evaluation & optimization". It was funded by "Polonez 2" research grant no. 2016/21/P/ST8/03856 supported by the National Science Centre, Poland.

This project has received funding from the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska–Curie grant agreement No 665778.

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