Circle Packing and Hamiltonian Mappings

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An area-preserving map is derived from a kicked Hamiltonian. The map shows circular orbits in phase space similar to circle packings.

Contributed by: Enrique Zeleny (March 2013)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



The Hamiltonian with parameter and kicks represented by a sequence of Dirac delta functions is


where , , and are the position, momentum, and time. The map then takes the form



[1] A. J. Scott, C. A. Holmes, and G. J. Milburn, "Hamiltonian Mappings and Circle Packing Phase Spaces," Physica D, 155(1–2), 2001 pp. 34–50. doi:10.1016/S0167-2789(01)00263-9.

[2] G. Hughes, "Outer Billiards, Digital Filters and Kicked Hamiltonians," 2012.

[3] "Dynamics of Polygons." (Feb 26, 2013)

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