Electrical Conductivity of Silicon Semiconductors

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This Demonstration shows the charge carrier concentration in silicon (Si) and doped Si (n- and p-types) as a function of temperature and dopant concentration. The corresponding electron band configurations are shown to the right of the plot. Phosphorous doping creates n-type Si, while boron doping creates p-type Si.

Contributed by: Nathan S Nelson (September 2015)
Additional contributions by: Rachael L. Baumann and John L. Falconer
(University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



The intrinsic carrier concentration () is:



where is the effective density of states (), is the energy gap (eV), is Boltzmann's constant (eV/K), is temperature (K), and is the effective density of states at 300 K.

The carrier concentration for pure silicon () is:


The carrier concentration for doped silicon () is:


where is the atomic concentration of dopant atoms, is the activation energy for the electron of a dopant atom, and is the ideal gas constant.

All carrier concentration are in units of .

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