Heart Electrophysiology

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The heart wall is composed of three layers: the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. This Demonstration shows transmembrane potentials and gating variables during a heartbeat for cardiac cells located in each of these layers. All time values are measured in milliseconds (ms).

Contributed by: Mikel Landajuela (January 2018)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



We consider the minimal model proposed in [1] to reproduce experimentally measured characteristics of human ventricular action potential.


[1] A. Bueno-Orovio, E. M. Cherry and F. H. Fenton, "Minimal Model for Human Ventricular Action Potentials in Tissue," Journal of Theoretical Biology, 253(3), 2008 pp. 544–560. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.03.029.

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