Iterating Affine Transforms

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An affine transformation is one that preserves collinearity. For example, translation, rotation, scaling, and shearing are affine transformations.


See what happens to a triangular image when an affine transformation is applied times. Drag the locator to change the location of the initial image.


Contributed by: Enrique Zeleny (January 2015)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



An affine transformation can be written as



where is the translation vector. The scaling factor is and the angle of rotation is , so that



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