A potential flow is characterized by a velocity field that is the gradient of a scalar function, the velocity potential. This velocity field is irrotational, because the curl of a gradient is identically zero. Velocity potentials are obtained as solutions of Laplace's equation, most conveniently in the complex plane. Some applications include water-wave propagation, airfoils, electrostatics, and heat flow. The equations can be used for modeling both stationary and nonstationary flows.[more]
Potential flows for different cases are shown. As described in the references, is the velocity field and is the strength of the source, while , , , , , and are other hydrodynamic parameters in the model.[less]
 B. J. Cantwell. "Elements of Potential Flow, Chapter 10, AA200: Applied Aerodynamics." (Apr 6, 2014) http://web.stanford.edu/~cantwell/AA200_Course_Material/AA200_Course_Notes/AA200_Ch_ 10_Elements _of _potential _flow _Cantwell.pdf.
 P. Nylander. "Potential Flow." (Aug 4, 2014) bugman123.com/GANNAA/index.html.