Relativistic Ground State of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

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This Demonstration computes the probability of the upper (red) and lower (gold) components of the ground state of a relativistic hydrogen-like atom of charge as a function of , up to , in accordance with the Dirac equation. This is compared to the probability in the standard nonrelativistic theory. The Dirac equation develops a singularity when .

Contributed by: Niels Walet (March 2011)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



See J. J. Sakurai, Advanced Quantum Mechanics, New York: Addison Wesley, 1967.

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