# Van der Waals Isotherms

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The Van der Waals equation of state for one mole of an imperfect fluid reads . The critical constants are predicted to be , , . The Van der Waals equation can be recast in the form of a universal reduced equation of state in terms of reduced variables , , . Isotherms where is constant can be plotted on the versus diagram using the slider for values of between 0.80 and 1.20. The critical isothermis shown in red.

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Contributed by: S. M. Blinder (February 2008)

Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

## Snapshots

## Details

Snapshot 1: isotherm for

Snapshot 2: isotherm for , showing Maxwell construction

Snapshot 3: isotherm for , approaching the hyperbolic shape of an ideal-gas isotherm

The Van der Waals equation is discussed in all physical chemistry texts. See, for example:

P. W. Atkins and J. de Paula, *Physical Chemistry*, 8th ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

S. M. Blinder, *Advanced Physical Chemistry: A Survey of Modern Theoretical Principles*, New York: Macmillan, 1969.

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