Xored Keccak States for Steps in Rounds of SHA-3

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Trace how SHA-3 message digests are made in 24 rounds with five Keccak functions.


Set "inbits" to 0 to check if the final step returns the expected digest of the empty message.

The left column shows 1600 bits of internal states before and after each step.

The number between the images compares the number of ones for input and output states.

The image on the right side shows the Xor difference of inputs and outputs for the current state.

The middle column compares SHA-3 256-bit message digests of current inputs and outputs.

The small digest plots show 64 hex values representing four bits as numbers between 0 and 15.


Contributed by: Michael Schreiber (March 2016)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA




[1] Information Technology Laboratory, "SHA-3 Standard: Permutation-Based Hash and Extendable-Output Functions," Gaithersburg: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2015. doi:10.6028/NIST.FIPS.202.

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