Bat Occupancy at a Wind Facility

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This Demonstration shows the predicted probability of the presence of bats that echolocate at low frequencies (less than 35 kHz) at Dillon Wind Energy Facility, Riverside, California. Predicted probability of presence (vertical axis) is a function of night within time period (horizontal axis) and meteorological variables (sliders). The dark line is the predicted probability and the blue-shaded areas are 95% confidence intervals. The relative influence on the presence probability as a function of mean nightly wind speed (m/s), mean nightly temperature (deg C), mean nightly wind direction (degrees), and proportion of moon illuminated (0=new, 100=full) can be observed by the moving sliders. Select a dataset (time period) using the drop-down menu.

Contributed by: Theodore J. Weller and James A. Baldwin (June 2011)
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



From a manuscript in review: T. J. Weller and J. A. Baldwin, "Using Echolocation Monitoring to Model Bat Occupancy and Inform Mitigations at Wind Energy Facilities". Contact for more information.

The probability of presence, corrected for probability of detectors at 2, 22, and 52 m above ground was estimated using a maximum-likelihood estimator (PROC NLMIXED, SAS version 9.2) following the principles described in D. I. MacKenzie, J. D. Nichols, J. A. Royle, K. H. Pollock, L. L. Bailey, and J. E. Hines, Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, London, U. K.: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006.

Snapshots are intended to display various forms of the function during representative meteorological conditions in three separate time periods.

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