Classifying the Complexity and Information of Cellular Automata

Cellular automata (CA) can be classified according to the complexity and information produced by the behavior of the CA pattern:
Class 1: Fixed; all cells converge to a constant black or white set
Class 2: Periodic; repeats the same pattern, like a loop
Class 3: Chaotic; pseudo-random
Class 4: Complex local structures; exhibits behaviors of both class 2 and
class 3; likely to support universal computation
From the set of possible elementary CA rules, three rules were previously (manually) selected as examples for patterns of CA classes, with random initial condition.


  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]
  • [Snapshot]


Inspired by:
CA classification by S. Wolfram and parameter by C. Langton.
G. W. Flake, The Computational Beauty of Nature: Computer Explorations of Fractals, Chaos, Complex Systems, and Adaptation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.
    • Share:

Embed Interactive Demonstration New!

Just copy and paste this snippet of JavaScript code into your website or blog to put the live Demonstration on your site. More details »

Files require Wolfram CDF Player or Mathematica.