# Orthogonality as well as Equidistance Can Be Used as the Sole Primitive Notion for Euclidean Geometry

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Pieri has shown that the ternary relation of a point equally distant from two other points and (in symbols, ) can be used as the primitive foundation of Euclidean geometry of two or more dimensions [1].

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Contributed by: Izidor Hafner (February 2018)

Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

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## Details

Definitions given in the caption are from [2].

Robinson's definitions of geometric relations using Pieri's relation [3, pp. 71–72] are:

Here, means is between and ; means , and are collinear; and means and are symmetric about (i.e. that is the midpoint of ).

References

[1] M. Pieri, "La Geometria Elementare istituita sulle nozioni di punto e sfera," *Memorie di matematica e di fisica della Societ'a italiana delle Scienze*, ser. 3(15), 1908 pp. 345–450.

[2] H. L. Royden, "Remarks on Primitive Notions for Elementary Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Plane Geometry," in *Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics*, Vol. 27, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1959 pp. 86–96.

[3] R. M. Robinson, "Binary Relations as Primitive Notions in Elementary Geometry: The Axiomatic Method with Special Reference to Geometry and Physics," in *Proceedings of an International Symposium Held at the University of California, Berkeley, December 26, 1957–January 4, 1958*, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1959 pp. 68–85. doi:10.1017/S0022481200092690.

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