under the conditions , , and ; where the nonlinear terms are related by conservation of energy and advection, the term with the stands for dissipation of energy, and is a constant external force.
 E. N. Lorenz and K. A. Emanuel, "Optimal Sites for Supplementary Weather Observations: Simulation with a Small Model," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 55(3), 1998 pp. 399–414. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<0399:OSFSWO>2.0.CO;2.
 J. C. Sprott, Elegant Chaos: Algebraically Simple Chaotic Flows, Singapore: World Scientific, 2010.