A Primer on Stoichiometry

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Stoichiometry can be inspired by the philosophical dictum of Parmenides: ex nihilo nihil facit (nothing comes from nothing). Stoichiometry is based on the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction (Lavoisier's law). We also show how to convert from moles to several other chemical units.


Select "mass relationships" from the popup menu and choose a certain chemical reaction (which can be displayed either as an ionic or a molecular equation). By following three steps you can calculate the final mass of each species in the reaction. Choose the initial mass and the initial chemical species. The last step verifies Lavoisier's law: the sum of the reactant masses is equal to the sum of the product masses.

Select "conversions" from the popup menu. Choosing two units, you can see the conversion factors. You can also select "show all." Exercises in stoichiometry usually require only a conversion of grams to moles.


Contributed by: A. Ratti, D. Meliga, L. Lavagnino and S. Z. Lavagnino (June 2021)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



Snapshot 1: first step, moles from the initial mass of

Snapshot 2: final step, every mass is calculated from the initial mass of

Snapshot 3: conversion factors from mass (grams) to volume of solution ()


[1] P. M. Lausarot and G. A. Vaglio, Stechiometria per la Chimica generale, Padova, Italy: Piccin-Nuova Libraria S.p.A., 2005.

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