This Demonstration shows the synthesis of ATP in mitochondria. ATP is the "energy currency" of cells. The blue proton pumps move the red protons outside the membrane. As they are forced back in against the gradient, ATP synthase catalyzes the addition of a third phosphate ion to ADP, to convert it to ATP. Mouse over each part of the process for more details.
This was a project for Advanced Topics in Mathematics II, 2016–2017, Torrey Pines High School, San Diego, CA.