Bochvar's Three-Valued Logic

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This Demonstration presents a simple test for Bochvar's (1939) three-valued logic. The values are: True, False, and Undefined (or Paradoxical or Meaningless), with associated numerical values 1, 0, 1/2, respectively. The value of compound propositions is evaluated according to Bochvar's matrices for internal connectives.

Contributed by: Izidor Hafner (March 2011)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



A simple two-dimensional area is occupied by triangles, squares, and pentagons of three different sizes and two colors. If in a statement an individual constant with no reference appears ( in case of a world with two figures and ), then the statement is meaningless.

S. Haack, Deviant Logic, London: Cambridge University Press, 1974 p. 169.

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