Modeling of Arm-Z with AnglePath3D

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Arm-Z is a conceptual manipulator composed of congruent modules, each having one degree of freedom (1-DOF)—a relative twist. It can be modeled naturally with the Wolfram Language function AnglePath3D. This extremely modular system can perform worm-like organic movements.

Contributed by: Machi Zawidzki (April 2020)
Open content licensed under CC BY-NC-SA



This work was completed as part of the project titled: "Arm-Z: an extremely modular hyper-redundant low-cost manipulator—development of control methods and efficiency analysis." It was funded by "OPUS 33" research grant number 2019/33/B/ST8/02791 supported by the National Science Centre, Poland.


[1] M. Zawidzki and J. Szklarski, "Transformations of Arm-Z Modular Manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization," Advances in Engineering Software, 126, 2018 pp. 147–160. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003.

[2] M. Zawidzki, "Deployable Pipe-Z," Acta Astronautica, 127, 2016 pp. 20–30. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.05.023.

[3] M. Zawidzki and K. Nishinari, "Modular Pipe-Z System for Three-Dimensional Knots," Journal for Geometry and Graphics, 17(1), 2013 pp. 81–87.

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