Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces

In 1865, H. A. Schwarz found two triply periodic minimal surfaces (P and D) [1] and his student Edwin Neovius found another one (N). Around 1970, Alan Schoen found the gyroid [2] and others; many other cases have been discovered [3, 4]. Such surfaces are relevant in biomaterials and the study of several compounds with cubic lattices [5, 6].
[5] Fiona Meldrum's Group. "Mechanical Properties of Bio-Inspired Materials." (Aug 7, 2013) http://www.inchm.bris.ac.uk/people/meldrum/mech%20props.html.
[6] P. J. F. Gandy and J. Klinowski, "The Equipotential Surfaces of Cubic Lattices,", Chemical Physics Letters, 360(5–6), 2002 pp. 543–551. doi:10.1016/S0009-2614(02)00864-3.


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[1] A. H. Schoen, Infinite Periodic Minimal Surfaces without Self-Intersections, NASA Technical Note TN D-5541, Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1970.
[2] E. Zeleny. "The Gyroid" from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project—A Wolfram Web Resource. demonstrations.wolfram.com/TheGyroid.
[3] The Scientific Graphics Project. "Minimal Surfaces." (Aug 7, 2013) archive.msri.org/about/sgp/jim/geom/minimal/index.html.
[4] K. Brakke. "Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces." (Aug 7, 2013) www.susqu.edu/facstaff/b/brakke/evolver/examples/periodic/periodic.html.
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